Exercise 1.1 - Answers


No it is inconsistent. If what he believes were true, Mary's only brother would have to be David, of course.




Yes. No doubt it is physically impossible for a woman to have so many children, but things could have been different.


No. What he believes couldn't have been true. Of course "2" might have meant something different, and so might "+" and "=" and "5", so that the sentence "2+2=5" could have been used to say something true. But what Peter is said to believe is that 2+2=5; this is not the same thing as saying that Peter believes that "2+2=5" means something which is true.


No, if they are referring to the same person and the same day. Otherwise, yes.


Answer. No if Mary is referring to John and is talking about the same time. Otherwise, yes.


No, if Marmaduke is being used to refer to the same thing in both sentences (on the assumption that nothing could be both a cat and a man, even at different times). Otherwise, yes.


Yes, whether or not the same person is being referred to. There is no impossibility in being both.

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